The recoding of the docks as linear waterfront park armatures has offered many American cities the opportunity to rediscover their buried heritage, creating new landscaped networks. Portland, Oregon, began its waterfront park in by tearing up the Eastbank Freeway. In New York, community activists defeated the proposed Westway in court for ecological reasons in And in the mids Chan Kreiger designed a new linear Rose Kennedy Park in Boston, interspersed with building sites, to cover the Big Dig completed Employing planning principles derived from the boardwalk communities along the Fire Island National Seashore New York and Radburn New Jersey , individual house plots face on to raised boardwalks and have preservation zones to save existing flora.
Houses are raised on piers to protect nearby wetland ecologies and to allow existing patterns of hydrology to remain. Vehicles approach from parking courts located at the rear of plots. Paths lead back from the beach into the neighbourhoods and surrounding wetlands that will be preserved as parks. CityPlan Here, planners linked the central enclave and waterfront armatures to eight planned high-density suburban subcentres using regional public transport and bicycle paths all set within a green belt boundary.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has consistently rated Vancouver among the top five most liveable cities in the world it was number one in Three large new state parks are proposed along the river around the downtown on old railway yards, including the re-creation of lost wetlands. The downtown riverbed will be stepped to make an inhabitable landscape during the dry season, with large ducts hidden in the section to carry spring flood run-off. The commercial redevelopment of the surrounding land as office and residential blocks will help fund the project. Although American cities appear chaotic in contrast to their Canadian counterparts, their suburban format is based on an underlying, self-organising system of giant enclaves of recombinant landscape patches.
Global corporations have learnt how to manipulate these patches as attractors to direct the paths of pedestrians or drivers, using spectacular forms of landscaping for marketing purposes. Walt Disney demonstrated the power of this approach in the Anaheim Disneyland enclave in , with its themed main street entry armature and variously styled landscape enclaves Tomorrow Land, Frontier Land, and so on , attracting 12 million people annually. At Disney World, begun in , Disney demonstrated that the same spectacular landscaping and marketing strategy could be applied at a global scale, this time set within the specially created, tax-exempt, 10,hectare 25,acre Reedy Creek Improvement District, Florida.
The first Magic Kingdom patch included a replica of the Anaheim Disneyland. A Bucky Fuller dome housing the ATT Pavilion, then a global communications giant, towered over the lake, seen from and observing all points. Many of these projects, like Celebration, include bicycle paths and lanes for golf carts as alternative means of transport.
Peachtree, outside Atlanta, has 9, registered golf carts for street use. The council banned all other new commercial development downtown. One of the original department stores was retained and remodelled as an art gallery and cultural centre, while the metre foot armature of the original mall and other department stores were demolished to make way for a new, landscaped town square. The story of the associated commercial subcentres is well known.
Designers shifted from single-armature open-air malls to interior, multilevel, airconditioned extravaganzas, ending in huge megamalls with four or more armatures. More than 40 million people annually visit the artificial, interior, phantasmagorical, undulating landscape of the Camp Snoopy theme park at the centre of the Mall of America Jerde Associates, Developers have also transformed some older dumbbell malls into landscaped urban spectacles.
Small bottom-up landscape initiatives by citizens take on a new interest, instead of top-down investments.
These small-scale landscape attractors served poor local neighbourhoods deprived of parks, drawing pedestrian traffic to their doors. Other smallscale, temporary landscape structures could have a similar rhizomatic effect. Robert Smithson played with this idea of the short-life mobile attractor that travelled through the city in his proposal for a miniature Central Park on a barge, cruising back and forth off the shore of Manhattan, which was recently re-created by the Whitney Museum.
The mall building was taken apart except for a few fragments that were retained as isolated pavilions in a new, ecological landscape of windmills on a wind farm, a bowling green, a small golf range and a bird sanctuary set among the islands in the retention pond that partially replaced the parking lot.
A franchise sold eco-cars from some of the islands reached by bridges. The surfaces are categorised as patches made up of various percentages of fine vegetation grass, agriculture , coarse vegetation trees , bare soil, pavement tarmac and buildings with various densities. Patches of one, two, three, four and five mixes were identified in the study using remote-sensing devices and up-close observation.
With this observational tool, urban actors can choose to alter the mixture in their patch to achieve a better environment. The market is now open three days a week and attracts local farmers and their produce from around New York State. The Union Square neighbourhood houses many restaurants that specialise in cooking this fresh local produce. New York has also legalised other such bottom-up local initiatives like the High Line Park in Chelsea and the Green Thumb pocket parks scattered across the city in poorer areas saved from being sold off privately by actress Bette Midler in the mids.
Time and seasons play their part in programming the shifting performative urbanism of urban actors, providing space for both everyday preoccupations and spectacular events. These commons can often be formed in leftover spaces and those created by industrial shrinkage.
Within this layered matrix, the shrinking and shifting of American cities appeared as clear patterns, opening opportunities for rhizomatic intervention in the interstices between the sequential assemblages. However, all three entries shared a performative urbanism approach pioneered by Cedric Price and Archigram in the s and creatively reconfigured by Tschumi and Koolhaas in their Parc de la Villette competition entries.
The multidisciplinary team, led by Steward Pickett of the Institute of Eco-Systems Studies, includes hydrologists, urban forestry experts, urban sociologists and economists, experts in public health, urban historians and urban designers led by Brian McGrath of Columbia University , and focuses on the impact of the stream beds on urban morphology and urban abandonment patterns.
BES uses remote-sensing data and up-close sociological approaches to monitor the impact of human settlement patterns on the urban forest and also promises to provide, in the long term, a precise urban model for measuring the human impact on the 33 forest in terms of human carbon production, forest uptake and run-offs into the estuary.
The flexibility of the performative urbanism approach has also allowed landscape urbanists to creatively engage the reprogramming of the city section. This linear armature, wending its way through the city, demonstrates the three-dimensional potential of landscape urbanism and performative urbanism to inhabit the city section and exploit opportunities to create new open spaces. The approach might tie into green roofs in dense urban settings, to begin to make a three-dimensional park system that links into the bases of skyscrapers, as imagined at Rockefeller Center in the s.
The problem facing recombinant landscape urbanists as they tackle the reconditioning of the city is the creation of the new commons in the interstices of the three-dimensional matrix of private property. Owners may not want the liability of a recombinant, performative, green urban park on their unused rooftops.
Cities need highly motivated urban actors like the well-financed, bottom-up Friends of the High Line to advocate for the new urban commons. Such actors, as in the New York case, may create strange new public—private alliances and zoning variances in their recombinant quests. The overall impact of recombinant urban landscape projects is to empower a new localism and modern hybridity in the global city.
Americans can live and work in the new downtown enclaves in reconditioned skyscrapers, or in the landscaped armatures of boulevards and waterfronts, and in 34 the large, corporate, suburban landscaped patches. Recombinant urban landscapes are the key to a new flexibility and will allow American cities to adapt rapidly to the changing energy situation.
The result will be multicentred, heterotopic, mixed-use Network Cities that include local ecology, urban parks and agriculture. The contract to bury the I raised highway in downtown Boston the Big Dig was the largest civil contract ever let in American history. On 10 July , panels of the highway tunnel concrete ceiling system fell on the roadway killing a driver, causing the temporary closure of the system.
The investigation is ongoing. He applied these ideas in the Portland Metro Vision plan Ibid, pp 55— A series of paths and terraces structures a rhizomatic path for pedestrians, punctuated by pavilions and displays, over highways and railway tracks down to the seashore. Beneath the path a network of pipes removes methane pollution from the brownfield site and provides services for the ramps as settings for art installations and performance spaces. Now, valued because of the environmental movement, stimulated by collaborations with architects and artists, and presented with opportunities to transform abandoned industrial sites, landscape architects are enthusiastically producing new kinds of parks on brownfields, along waterfronts, even on rooftops and in garbage dumps.
Jayne Merkel here looks at ways the designed landscape is creating outdoor public space in a country where it has not always been valued. The agrarian ideal runs deep in America, where most people live on the fringes of cities and rarely visit places where people actually encounter one another face to face on streets and in parks. Although a central green, used for farming and as a meeting place, was a dominant feature of early colonial towns, the American cities that grew up later, as most did, have very little open public space.
Now the challenge for landscape architects is to help make urban areas habitable enough that they stay. This is certainly what Diana Balmori is trying to do. Ken Smith, who is creating the hectare 1,acre Orange County Great Park in California, attributes the new energy in landscape architecture partly to artists, such as Robert Smithson and Michael Heizer, who worked outside on a landscape scale in the the s and s to break out of the gallery system.
It consists of a whole series of floating islands and walkways along a 1,metre 4,foot long shore, with integrated bicycle and pedestrian paths, a terraced riverwalk, event areas for large gatherings and docking for riverboats. She planted bulrushes, wild rice and tall grasses that root in shallow water along the shoreline to provide shelter and food for small animals and birds and, further out, added water lilies and irises surrounded by a causeway shaped like the tip of the fern. Paths for people are based on the twisted roots of the delta duck-potato; thinner stems rise out of the water to provide perches for birds.
Johanson, who proposed sculptural solutions to environmental problems as early as , is an artist with a degree in architecture earned in order to help get her projects built. But there were other landscape architects at that time, such as Lawrence Halprin in San Francisco and Richard Haag in Seattle, who also did lively, usable, transformative urban projects that foreshadow those being done today.
Haag converted a brownfield site long before the term was in popular usage. Today, abandoned industrial sites are the most likely places for public works of landscape architecture, and they take a bizarre variety of forms from waterfronts and railroad beds to mines and factories. In New York City, the 2. The Fresh Kills site — an intertidal marsh into which million tons of refuse, mostly household waste, was dumped for over half a century — managed to grow forests, create a nesting area for herons, and host migrating birds anyway, though it often emitted foul odours.
In , plans for its conversion to a park had been made, a competition held, and closing begun, when events on 11 September forced it to reopen to accommodate debris from the World Trade Center tragedy, giving new ironic meaning to its name, which had actually come from the Fresh Kills Estuary. Service roads will be turned into public thoroughfares, easing traffic congestion on Staten Island and making the park accessible by car. A gateway flanked by wind turbines will lead to four landfill mounds, each capped and transformed into a different landscape.
The one on the north will have a rounded peak with meadows, but there will also be woods, secluded island nesting areas, marshes with an interpretive centre, and a memorial garden to those whose remains lie within the land. There will be ball fields, boating and fishing, picnic spots, horse trails and a great lawn for events. The plan for the new park draws on the fact that woods and nesting areas managed to develop even when the landfill was active.
It will add a whole series of wetlands and natural habitats interspersed with places for boating, cycling, ball games and outdoor concerts. The planting designs were created by Piet Oudolf. At the southern end, a grand staircase and elevators will lead up to the High Line and a new museum for the Whitney Museum, which has decided to build its addition by Renzo Piano here instead of on the Upper East Side. Balmori is working on an even stranger site in Long Island City, Queens, just across the East River from Manhattan — one that is already fully developed.
Reading the Wind and Weather: The Meteorological Architecture of Studio Mumbai
She is creating gardens or at least plantings on top of small industrial buildings that are still used for industry. This plan intends to make the area useful and festive by creating a series of indoor—outdoor pavilions under the roadway, using it as a sun shelter, roof and framework for lighting. They will make the temperatures go down, filter the air, maximise carbon dioxide, absorb and clean rain water delaying it from going into the sewer lines during storms, and prevent extreme temperatures on the roof, therefore doubling the life of the roof and absorbing 90 per cent of the solar energy.
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Still, what Balmori likes best about the new rooftop world of green is the fact that it can create new public spaces — places for people to congregate in the city. New roofing systems created in Germany and France make planted roofs even more reliable than most regular ones, and some plants such as fleshy sedum survive with nothing but watering the first year. Only a block away from the scientifically monitored 1,square-metre 11,square-foot project for Gratz, Balmori is doing a 3,square-metre 35,square-foot modular GreenTech roof for Silvercup Studios, the largest independent film and television facility in the northeast, which is planning a ,square-metre 6 million-square-foot mixed-use expansion designed by Richard Rogers on its 2.
That riverfront will be designed by the Olin Partnership of Philadelphia with a variety of spaces for active and passive recreation. Across the East River and a few miles south, Ken Smith is creating a 5. Underused waterfronts all around New York — and the rest of the nation — are being turned into parks and recreation areas. New York, which grew up on a cluster of islands and peninsulas, got a head start 20 years ago when Battery Park 41 City, a new mixed-used neighbourhood west of Wall Street, was created on landfill.
Now its western edge along the Hudson River is a virtual museum of waterside parks. Eventually the parkland will line the whole western edge of Manhattan. Manhattan from the old industrial waterfront in Brooklyn. The Hudson River Park, being built in stages on the west side of Manhattan, is the first park in the state that will have to depend solely on commercial entities within its boundaries for maintenance and operation.
Now the practice is becoming commonplace. Plans call for new high-rise apartments, a hotel and other enterprises near the park entrances, so Brooklyn Heights residents fear the park will become the private preserve of tenants in the 43 Ken Smith, Mary Miss, Enrique Norten, Steven Handel and Mia Lehrer, Orange County Great Park, Irvine, California, — This new park on the site of an abandoned Marine Corps airfield will re-create a natural canyon with cool, semi-arid air, shaded with palm trees.
There will also be hiking trails, bicycle paths and a variety of other recreational facilities as well as a botanical garden, national archive of the West, and a public library in an area where there are few public parks. The new park actually has plenty of facilities — promenades, boat docks, ball courts, a little beach, a 4hectare acre safewater zone for kayaking, an extensive new cultivated and natural green landscape.
It will meet the water with floating walkways and tidal marshes that will contrast with the massive bridges and elevated highway nearby. But the political connections of one of the developers have aroused suspicion, which is not uncommon when there is new development in established neighbourhoods. And there is always the possibility of conflict of interest with privatisation. In Irvine, California, south of Los Angeles, where Ken Smith is designing the Orange County Great Park on a former Marine Corps airfield, only hectares 1, acres of the 1,hectare 4,acre air station will be devoted to parkland.
The rest was sold to the Lennar Corporation, a developer who is creating new neighbourhoods around the park with access to it. Here, to sell the idea of the park to the community, the designers have put up a huge orange hot-air balloon — the idea of the artist Mary Miss who is working with Smith on the park. It has a gondola that holds 25 to 30 people, so that classes of schoolchildren and tourists can go up and see the park being built. Working with Miss, architect Enrique Norten, the restoration ecologist Steven Handel, and LA landscape architect Mia Lehrer, Smith brings the same witty sense of wonder to this enormous project that he has to many smaller ones in New York.
But he is dead serious about the environmental mission of the park. They mention economy, ecology, 44 community — and health. For larger distances there will be golf carts that people can secure with a credit card. The idea is to encourage natural locomotion to explore a man-made environment based on the restoration of natural elements.
There will also be a botanical garden, a national archive of the West and a public library in the park. When Olmsted was thinking about Central Park, what people needed was respite. They worked six- to seven-day weeks, with their bodies. We need those bikes. The water for all these facilities will come from the year-old Acequia Madre, an irrigation ditch on the site.
They are adding new lighting, seating, shelter, paths, water and plants to tie everything together and create a sense of place. MPA is also doing a number of small urban interventions, such as landscapes around libraries and recreation areas at housing projects. And Diana Balmori has formed a partnership with her Yale teaching colleague, architect Joel Sanders, to do projects that cross traditional interdisciplinary lines.
Balmori believes that landscape now has better tools to communicate with the public at large than was the case in the past. She thinks models, which can represent buildings effectively, are poor tools for landscape, especially the kind she wants to create. We are using dot matrix so that we can dissolve the objects more in order to talk about space.
I want to dissolve the landscape so that it becomes what is contained, not the container. The project is intended to extend the park where the arch is located up and down the river, connect it with the land across the Mississippi River in Illinois, and create places for gatherings and active recreation, such as a skating rink, restaurant and excursion boats, as well as pedestrian access to the river.
It also resurrects history, if unwittingly. History plays a different role in landscape architecture than in building or even urban design. When a piece of landscape architecture is done, it is just beginning. It takes time to grow a landscape. Could the lakeshore scheme be aspiring to a new waterside on a par with those of its North American neighbours such as New York and Chicago? The fabric of Toronto is literally changing daily.
With the city in the midst of a burgeoning architectural renaissance, a number of international star architects, including Frank Gehry and Daniel Libeskind, have landed to create an exceptional collection of fashionable iconic works. But what is important is also what is happening in between those dramatic architectural moments, in the continuous space of the city. Collectively, Toronto is by and large an enlightened metropolis that recognises the value of quality public space.
With this in mind, the fires are lit yet again on its ongoing waterfront revitalisation initiative. With the selection of the competition-winning scheme by Rotterdam landscape architect Adriaan Geuze of West 8, in a joint venture with local architects du Toit Allsopp Hillier DTAH , the stretch of lakefront at the city core is poised to be infused with a lively mix of recreational and pedestrian amenities, cultural facilities and private condominiums.
Large-scale urban planning began in earnest in the late s. The existing Queens Quay Boulevard will be pedestrian focused with its southern lanes reconfigured as an animated granite esplanade. The intent of the West 8 scheme is to create continuous public connections to the city. The major parallel artery of Queens Quay Boulevard will be devoted equally to the pedestrian and cars.
Reduced from four lanes to two, the southern lanes will be configured as an animated granite esplanade connecting new landscaped moments such as the Rees Shoreline, reshaped as the rocky Canadian Shield to the already successful Queens Quay Terminal. Additionally, the boardwalk will connect to the extensive Martin Goodman ravine trail system and tie into the West Donlands community, a new mixed-use development for , people on reclaimed brownlands at the mouth of the Don River. Throughout its history, Toronto has shown some commitment to urban parks.
One notable example is Cloud Gardens, a small urban park in the financial core that features a cluster of trees, a crescent lawn and a small greenhouse that re-creates the damp conditions of the coastal mountain ecology. But the waterfront has unfortunately been plagued by promises, spurts and perpetual disputes over land ownership. The timing could certainly not be better given the recent wave of civic exuberance and private patronage sweeping through the city.
Ultimately, the West 8 scheme addresses many of the same urban issues that plague cities also facing lakefront challenges, but the bigger civic issue still remains: will the city deliver on its promise and create a great waterfront on a par with those of Chicago or New York, or will our new lakeshore vision dry up yet again? Here they apply their design approach to Hoboken, on the New Jersey Gold Coast, which, only a hop and a skip from Manhattan, directly across the Hudson from the Financial District, remains culturally and economically diverse. Most autumnal swimmers noted that the neighbourhood groundwater temperature-signature reinforced their own observations: swimming lasted a few weeks longer this year.
Networked into geothermal piles, the roof-garden swimming fountain offers water temperatures distinct from ambient air. Sunset stretched the shadow of the Palisades on to the parking lot as the crowd waited for the first film of the summer to begin.
The creative folks once again gradually emerged from their studios. Gathering unobstructed south and west sunlight, its reflective heat is mitigated by an etching of mini runnels of rain runoff. Through the toes of the visitors these mini streams are an immediate request that even the smallest bit of water be negotiated as a public actor in the emergent urban watershed.
Two roof gardens and two fountains offer horizontal and vertical volumes for water storage to mitigate this water surplus. The gardens are embedded with varying material surfaces for multiple recreation opportunities, whereas the fountains are contained within a compacted and sealed surface for dining, play and commerce.
When the rise in sea level increases the duration and frequency of the flood, these upper and lower surfaces afford reprogramming by the next generation of owners and stewards.
Two slowly percolating fountains, elm trees and hammocks dominate the main public space, while a temporary garden located on a future construction site serves restaurant diners, informal picnics and night-time cinema events. TILL, Thermal Rooftop Fountain, Monroe Center for the Arts, Hoboken, New Jersey, Connecting to groundwater temperature by geothermal piles, and rain water through retention vaults, this resident amenity garden offers a microclimate that extends the seasons and brings climate-change awareness to its high-rise condo-caretakers.
Other artefacts from the industrial structures are reused as benches. On summer evenings this space is used for outdoor film screenings. Unlike rural immigrant populations who carry with them knowledge of how to reinvent their urban environment, lifestyles are marketed to intracity suburban refugees. The Hoboken West Coast watershed offers a lifestyle based on the urban ecosystem approach, where the highest- and best-use development practices are joined with a belief that urban development can help connect people more directly to natural resources.
For most new migrants, a change of address requires only a minor adjustment due to the repetition and recombination of familiar urban elements such as strips, malls and downtown leisure and cultural districts. The integration of responsive environments into amenities aims to offer greater transparency, legibility and agency into the consumer development model.
Development is not just a process of addition, but rather reveals the multiple hidden sites and time scales that would allow new residents to process, in the time they have available, all the information necessary to effectively interact with the complex dynamics of the urban system as a whole. Patch Dynamics and Resiliency Patch dynamics is a core concept in contemporary ecosystem science that seeks to explain complex systems within which biological components — including humans — interact with physical environments over time.
By transferring ecosystem science concepts and models to cities, the researchers sought out the translation expertise of designers. Urban patch dynamics models involve the identification of patch areas based on distinct land-cover compositions. Defined by patch boundaries, these land-cover signatures modulate the flows of people, information, materials, water and nutrients. Patch dynamics is the operation between these patches in time, and as an urban design model it is a way of understanding the heterogeneity of the contemporary urban landscape.
The BES patch dynamic approach overlapped with current work in modelling the temporal patterns of phase change in urban design,3 and an interdisciplinary team was created to develop a patch dynamic urban design model based on both the small watershed and human ecosystem frameworks. The numerical prevalence of patch classes results in a distinctive signature. The left margin of the drawing shows a section of the various patch classes to illustrate how patches modulate flows. The understanding of time and scale in the ecological model of sustainability is misguided.
The first concerns the behavior of a system, due to the structure of its attributes and the interactions between them, due to voluntary management or depending both on the inherent characteristics of the system and on human effort. The other aspect concerns the perception of perturbations and change, and notably of unexpected or even unforeseeable future events. Cities must be resilient, flexible and adaptable with bottom-up systems of monitoring flows and developing new surface-management tools. Its western slope modulated a shifting tidal wetland terminating in a small stream at the base of the Palisades.
An early lithograph reveals a commuter boardwalk linking the island to Patterson Plank Road at the top of the Palisades cliff. Industrial landfill coupled Hoboken to the mainland, and more recently its extended shoreline, the New Jersey Gold Coast, has been further interconnected by a north—south light-rail transit spur paralleling the Hudson rather than crossing to Manhattan. The shallow backwater territories housed industrial uses and government housing projects with residential dwellings occupying the higher ground to the east.
A decrease in industrial production, and proximity to Manhattan, is repopulating the former tidal wetland as a new residential neighbourhood. Older residents enjoyed 19thcentury parks anchored by schools or churches and now newer parks and private landscapes are linked to shopping centres or are on shipping piers. The former industrial complex of Monroe Center became a creative catchment for Hoboken artists as the city was gentrified by Manhattan commuters.
This social flux is placed in proximity to the retention of water flows to create the possibility of new socio-natural relationships. Such turbulent patches and flows are located in an anomalous territory where hybrid land uses and land-covers offered a challenge to existing planning categories. Unable to fit the graded classification categories of metropolitan, suburban, fringe, rural or environmentally sensitive, the New Jersey Office of Smart Growth gave the linear city stretching from Bayonne to the George Washington Bridge its own special designation: the Urban Complex.
Embedded along the ridge between the Hudson and the Hackensack rivers, the urban complex is laced with geological, topographical, industrial and social legacies. With sea levels rising, lowland and upland dynamics will increase in complexity as the oily manufacturing heritage floats to the surface and railway commuter interconnectivity continues to diversify this densely inhabited, multicentred territory.
The New Regional Landscape The design and management tools of masterplanning, zoning and land-use controls grew out of the productivity and health needs of the industrial city a century ago. The ecological city demands new design and management tools. Also, our image of the city in relation to nature is changing. The old city model of a dense city centre ringed by green suburbs, agricultural land and a wilderness fringe is no longer operative. There is no longer a gradient from city to nature, but instead a heterogeneous mix of buildings and vegetation — both coarse and fine — pavement, soil and surface water.
The ecologically managed and designed city is beginning to respond to current trends in urbanisation and globalisation, such as emergent and self-organised structures, informal urban settlements, loosely regulated edge cities or regenerated older centres driven by new lifestyle choices. Fine vegetation, pavement and bare soil dominated patches constitute the thin city, with transit routes linking the dense city of forests and buildings.
Across the Hudson River from Manhattan, the New Jersey Urban Complex — a large, densely populated conurbation, stretches along and under the ridge of the Palisades. The Gwynns Falls Watershed, a square-kilometre square-mile subwatershed, meets the Patapsco River and Chesapeake Bay near downtown Baltimore, and is home to , people and 24 distinct commercial centres. A new light-rail line is creating a new waterfront for Hoboken, in marked contrast to the gentrified Hudson River waterfront that faces Manhattan.
Here brownfields and public-housing projects face the sheer cliff of the Palisades with its immigrant neighbourhoods above, with the New Jersey Meadowlands, and the rest of the continent, beyond. Gwynns Falls, the study area for the BES, stretches from dense enclaves surrounded by highways and farms to partially vacated urban neighbourhoods. A vast strip parallels the Gwynns Falls Stream Valley crossing the old city boundary, the ring road, and new exurban spurs. These two kinds of urban landscape transects — ridge and valley — are repeated countlessly along the Atlantic seaboard, and their design and management are dictating how the 40 million inhabitants of the megalopolis manage the new challenges of the 21st century.
Manhattan Timeformations, , www.
14 Patterns of Biophilic Design
Van der Leeuw and Aschan-Leygonie, op cit, p 9. Michel Conan describes how this is played out in his projects for the new town area of Sarcelles, the landscaping of the French motorways and in the gardens of an international headquarters in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris. While Modernist artists are members of an avant-garde and produce blueprints for a modern world, Lassus sees the artist as one among many actors who search for a modern ethos.
Within a multicultural environment he strives to develop rational approaches that anchor the lives of men and women in nature and history, while also making room for individual agency. I've heard the Archigram name before, but didn't really know any of the specifics about Cook's theoretical leanings.
From p. The new sensibility is toward terrain rather than patches or pockets. There is even a search for peace without escape - difficult for one to imagine amongst the chatter of the old city. For me it becomes even more intriguing if we pull the vegetal towards the artificial and the fertile towards the urban but in the end It's pure Landscape Urbanism from the core - specifically leaning towards vegetated architecture and landscape as form generator. This is even magnifed by a more experimental and expressive graphic technique that is refreshing imagine what he could've done with some digital tools at his disposal.
One article in particular struck me as a wonderful companion to Cook's vegitecture leanings - and elucidated the Landscape Urbanism mantra of space forming capacity of landscape. Architecture in our time has been concerned with landscape merely as a formal and visual counterpoint, or a sounding board for architectural forms.
Today, however, buildings are increasingly beginning to be understood as processes that unavoidably go through phases of functional, technical and cultural change as well as processes of wear and deterioration. The fundamentally time-bound dynamic and open-ended nature of landscape architecture can provide meaningful lessons for a 'weak' or 'fragile' architecture that acknowledges vulnerability instead of obsessively fighting against time and change as architecture traditionally has done.
The graphic is a classification of " Komarek, Gumerman, Camilli and Linda S. Cordell, Raymond Wood, Robert K. Nickel and David E. Griffin, Reports of the Chaco Center. Lyons, ed. Lyons and Robert K. Hitchcock, eds. Powers, William B. Gillespie and Stephen H.
Landscape Architecture: Site Non-Site (Architectural Design March April 2007, Vol. 77, No. 2)
Windes, Recent Research on Chaco Prehistory W. James Judge and John D. Akins, The Architecture and Stratigraphy Marcia L. Windes, ed. Mayer-Oakes and Alices W. Portnoy, eds. Portnoy, ed. Tipps and Nancy J. Hewitt, Gateways to Commerce: The U. Truesdale, Davis, Stephen A. Aaberg and James G. Schmitt, Tipps, Keel, John E. Cornelison, Jr. Brewer, King, Pheriba Stacy and Julian Hayden, Ruppert, Gilman, McDonald, Teague and Lynette O. Shenk, Moratto, Phillips, Jr. Stewart, Teague, Bruce Masse, Curriden, Fall, James A.
McDonald, and Pamela C. Magers, Michael Barton, Kay C. Simpson, and Lee Fratt, Whittaker, Baumler and Scott L. Carpenter, Tagg, Simpson and Susan J. Wells, 4 vols. Baumler, Trinkle Jones, Test Excavations in the Wawona Valley. Ervin, Somers, Ladd, Anderson, Gloria J.
Fenner, Don P. Morris, George A. Teague and Charmion McKusick, Baldwin and J. Michael Bremer, Somers, and M. Melia Lane-Hamasaki, D'Ascenzo, Rosendahl and Laura A. Carter, Wells, Wells and Keith M. Burton, Rankin, When is a Great Kiva? Wellman, Fox, Wells and Stacie A. Keutter, Fox and Elaine A. Guthrie, Elson, Burton, Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord, University of Washington Press edition [minus Foreword], revised Neff, Stacie A. Reutter, and Dawn A. Frost, Wells and Robert J. Hommon, Rechtman and Jack David Henry, Burton, William W. Bloomer, and Lynn Johnson, Burton, Jeremy D.
Haines, and Mary M. Farrell, Burton and Mary M. Neff and Meredith Wilson, Neff, Pearson, Melissa B. Markel, Shirley L. Shirley, and Trisha J. Rude, Neff and Christopher C. Corey, Pearson, MacWilliams, Bergstresser, Nancy E. Pearson, and Susan J. Bergstresser and JoAnn Blalack, MacWilliams, Laura S. Bergstresser, and John S. Langan, Wilson, Beckwith, Neff, Nancy E.
Pearson, and Nicole M. Arendt, Powers and Nancy E. Burton, Robert M. Cooper, Lynne D. D'Ascenzo, and Elaine A. Wells, et al, Vermeer, Anderson, and Yvonne G. Mallouf, Lenihan, ed. March Ruins Preservation Guidelines Draft November Metzger, Keeping National Parks Relevant in the 21st Century Page, Cathy A. Gilbert and Susan A.
Dolan, Page and Cari Goetcheus, Page, January Melnick, Bellavia, rev. Historic Landscape Directory Lauren G. Meier, ed. Landscape Lines undated. Dolan, December 19, Replacing Trees in Cultural Landscapes undated. Miller, May 10, Underground Railroad Special Resource Study Ballantyne and Harold Russell Associates, Inc. Evolution of Historic Structure Reports at the U. Wachter, April Simmons, April 14, Mather Training Center December Mather Training Center April History on the Line: Testimony in the Cause of Preservation Legislative History of the Historic Preservation Act of Armitage, M.
Hyman, J. Southon, C. Barat and M. Rowe, extract from Antiquity, v71, Improving Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings. Roofing for Historic Buildings. The Preservation of Historic Adobe Buildings. Dangers of Abrasive Cleaning to Historic Buildings. The Repair of Historic Wooden Windows.
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Exterior Paint Problems on Historic Woodwork. Rehabilitating Historic Storefronts. Preservation of Historic Concrete. The Preservation of Historic Barns. The Preservation and Repair of Historic Stucco. Preserving Historic Ornamental Plaster. The Preservation of Historic Signs. Painting Historic Interiors. Mothballing Historic Buildings. Making Historic Properties Accessible. Removing Graffiti from Historic Masonry. Preserving Historic Ceramic Tile Floors.
The Seismic Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings. Preserving Historic Wooden Porches. Preserving Grave Markers in Historic Cemeteries. Bonnie Halda, AIA. Proper Painting and Surface Preparation. Sharon Park, AIA. Paint Removal from Wood Siding. Alan O'Bright. Harrison Goodall. Ron Sheetz and Charles Fisher. Repair and Reproduction of Prismatic Glass Transoms. Chad Randl. Cas Stachelberg and Chad Randl.
Christina Henry. Preserving Historic Office Building Corridors. Thomas Keohan. Robert M. Jeffrey Levine and Donna Harris. Water Soak Cleaning of Limestone. Non-destructive Evaluation Techniques for Masonry Construction. Marilyn E. Kaplan, Marie Ennis and Edmund P. Replicating Historic Elevator Enclosures. Marilyn Kaplan, AIA. Conserving Outdoor Bronze Sculpture.
Landscape Architecture Site/Non‐Site: Architectural Design: Vol 77, No 2
Dennis Montagna. Restoring Metal Roof Cornices. Richard Pieper. Rebecca A. Rehabilitating a Historic Iron Bridge. Joseph P. Saldibar, III. Lauren Van Damme and Charles E. Don Cumberland, Jr. Restoring Vine Coverage to Historic Buildings. Karen Day. Temporary Protection of Historic Stairways. Charles Fisher. Dale H. Planning Approaches to Window Preservation. Wayne Trissler and Charles Fisher.
Replacement Wooden Frames and Sash. William Feist. Interior Metal Storm Windows. Laura Muckenfuss and Charles Fisher. Charles Parrott. Window Awnings. Interior Storm Windows: Magnetic Seal. Charles Fisher and Thomas Vitanza. Aluminum Replacements for Steel Industrial Sash. Charles E. Reinforcing Deteriorated Wooden Windows. Paul Stumes, P. Eng Interior Storms for Steel Casement Windows. Fisher and Christina Henry. Christopher W. Repair and Retrofitting Industrial Steel Windows. Repairing Steel Casement Windows. Maintenance and Repair of Historic Aluminum Windows.
Kaaren R. Jester, October Preserving Tribal Heritage c Clark, William W. Howell, Mary D. Wylie and Duane J. Venner, Lawson, Ellen, P. Ryan and Rebecca Bartlett Hutchison, Report of Special Committee on Historic Preservation Wachter, Bevitt, Roy W. Glass, Hume, Kay D. Weeks and H. Ward Jandl, , reprint. Weeks and Anne E. Grimmer, Wallpapers in Historic Preservation With Heritage So Rich edition. Bryan and The Triad Architectural Associates,
Related Landscape Architecture: Site Non-Site (Architectural Design March April 2007, Vol. 77, No. 2)
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