Practical Cookery Level 3


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Zoom Zoom. Availability In Stock. With Free Saver Delivery. Facebook Twitter Pinterest Share. Dry powder extinguishers able extinguishers in an obvious location may be all may be used on Class C fires. However, you really that is required. In larger or more complex premises, need to consider what type of portable fire extin- it is likely that the minimum requirement will be a guisher to use.

Means of fighting extinguishers is expelled by internal pressure, either fire may need to be considered. Generally, portable fire extinguishers can be divided Lighting of escape routes into five categories according to the extinguishing All escape routes, including external ones, must have medium they contain: sufficient lighting for people to see their way out 1. Water safely. Emergency escape lighting may be needed if 2. Foam areas of the workplace are without natural daylight or are used at night.

Powder 4. Carbon dioxide Fire-fighting equipment 5. Vaporising liquids, including halons. Portable fire extinguishers Some fire extinguishers can be used on more than Portable fire extinguishers enable suitably trained peo- one type of fire. When you are Your fire equipment supplier will be able to advise deciding on the types of extinguisher to provide, you you. However, should an incident heat or cold. Immediate action is required Employers have a duty under the Management of to prevent further accidents. All personnel need to be Health and Safety at Work Regulations to carry trained to be actively aware of the possible hazards out risk assessments and COSHH assessments.

Managing risk is not a complicated procedure. To start with, a health and safety policy must be in place for the business. Accidents in the workplace The highest numbers of accidents occurring in cater- Involve employees ing premises are due to persons falling, slipping or Employees are most at risk of having accidents, or tripping.

Therefore, floor surfaces must be of a suit- experiencing ill health, and they also know the most able construction to reduce this risk. A major reason about the jobs they do so are in the best position to for the high incidence of this kind of accident is that help managers develop safe systems of work that are it is likely that water and grease will be spilt and the effective in practice. An actively engaged workforce is combination of these substances is treacherous and one of the foundations that support good health and makes the floor surface slippery.

For this reason, any safety. It ensures that all those involved with a work spillage must be cleaned immediately and warning activity, both managers and workers, are participating notices put in place, where appropriate, highlighting in assessing risks. Ideally a member of staff should stand guard until the hazard is cleared. Assessing risk Placing articles on the floor in corridors, passageways Assessing risk is the key to effective health and safety or between stoves and tables may also cause indi- in the workplace.

This means nothing more than a viduals to fall. Persons carrying trays and containers careful examination of what, in your work, could cause have their vision obstructed and items on the floor harm to people, so that you weigh up whether you may not be visible; the fall may occur onto a hot stove have taken enough precautions or should do more to and the item being carried may be hot. These falls can prevent harm. The solution is to ensure Table 1. If it is necessary to have articles temporarily on 1. Look for hazards the things that could cause the floor then it is desirable that they are guarded so harm 2.

Decide who might be harmed and how as to prevent accidents. Kitchen personnel should be 3. Evaluate the risk and decide whether the existing trained to think and act in a safe manner in order to precautions are adequate, or whether more should avoid this kind of accident.


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Write down your findings so you have a record that Procedures for fire evacuation Design a poster to you can check against explain fire evacuation procedures. Regularly review your assessment and revise it if necessary. Managing health and safety Employers must have appropriate arrangements in place recorded where there are five or more employ- The prevention of accidents and food poisoning in ees for maintaining a safe workplace. These should catering establishments is essential; therefore it is cover the usual management functions of: necessary to assess the situation and decide what Planning action is to be taken.

For more information about car- Organisation rying out a risk assessment see page 5. Make the hazard safe, as long as you can do so without risking your own safety. Report the hazard to your chef or manager as soon as you can, Fire extinguisher making sure no one enters the area without being aware of the danger 2. If there is a hazard that you cannot make safe, warn others. Block the route past the hazard. Use A fire-fighting sign a sign signs are an effective way of informing people. Safety and hazard signage These generally take the following forms: Prohibition signs are red for example, a red circle.

Caution with a line through it tells you something you must not do in the area, for example no entry Fire-fighting signs are red with white symbols or writing for example, fire hose reel Warning signs are yellow for example, caution Very hot water hot surface Mandatory signs are blue for example, A warning sign protective gloves must be worn; a solid blue circle with a white picture or writing gives a reminder of something you must do, such as shut the door Hazard warning signs are yellow for example, corrosive. When using chemicals that could harm you, signs that highlight the following information may be displayed A mandatory sign on the container: Corrosive: could burn your skin Poison: may kill you if swallowed Irritant: may cause itching or a rash if in contact Fire with skin.

First aid exit An emergency and escape sign. Accident recording Emergencies in the workplace All accidents should be reported to your line man- Emergencies that might happen in the workplace ager, chef or a supervisor. Each accident is recorded include: in an accident report form, which must be provided Serious accidents in every business. An example of an incident report Outbreak of fire form, showing all the detail required, is shown below.

Time of accident: Date of accident: Time of report: Date of report:. Bomb scare Failure of a major system, for example water or First-aid equipment electricity. A first-aid box, as a minimum, should contain: An organisation will have systems in place to deal A card giving general first-aid guidance with emergencies. Key staff are usually trained to tackle emergencies.

There will be fire marshals and Twenty individually wrapped, sterile, first aiders. These people will attend regular update adhesive, waterproof dressings of various meetings. Evacuation procedures will also be held so sizes that employees can practise drill and fire alarms will 25 g cotton wool packs be tested regularly. Ensure that you know the evacu- A dozen safety pins ation procedures in your establishment.

If you have to Two triangular bandages leave the premises, ensure that the following proce- dures are adhered to: Two sterile eye pads, with attachment Turn off the power supplies: gas and electricity. Four medium-sized sterile unmedicated Usually this means hitting the red button in the dressings kitchen or turning off all appliances individually Two large sterile unmedicated dressings Close all windows and doors Two extra large sterile unmedicated Leave the building by the nearest emergency exit.

First aid cold water, towels, tissues and first-aid box. Hooks When people at work suffer injuries or fall ill, it is for clothing and a mirror should be provided. Small important that they receive immediate attention and establishments should have members of staff trained that, in serious cases, an ambulance is called. The in first aid and in possession of a certificate. After arrangements for providing first aid in the workplace a period of three years trained first-aid staff must are set out in the Health and Safety First Aid Reg- update their training to remain certificated.

All cater- ulations First aiders and facilities should be ing workers and students are recommended to available to give immediate assistance to casualties attend a first-aid course run by St John Ambulance, with common injuries or illness. As the term implies, first aid is the immediate treat- ment given on the spot to a person who has been injured or is ill. Since it has been a legal require- First-aid treatment ment that adequate first-aid equipment, facilities and Shock personnel to give first aid are provided at work.

If the The signs of shock are faintness, sickness, clammy injury is serious, the injured person should be treated skin and a pale face. Shock should be treated by by a doctor or nurse as soon as possible. Cover the person with a blanket or clothing, but First-aid boxes must be easily identifiable and acces- do not apply hot water bottles. They should be in the charge of a responsible person, checked regularly and refilled Fainting when necessary.

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Fainting may occur after a long period of standing in a All establishments must have first-aid equipment hot, badly ventilated kitchen. The signs of an impend- and employees qualified in first aid. Large establish- ing faint are whiteness, giddiness and sweating. A ments usually have medical staff such as a nurse faint should be treated by raising the sick persons and a first-aid room.

Place the injured part gently under slowly running water or immerse in cool water, keeping it there for at Cuts least ten minutes or until the pain ceases. If serious, All cuts should be covered immediately with a water- the burn or scald should then be covered with a clean proof dressing, after the skin around the cut has cloth or dressing preferably sterile and the person been washed. When there is considerable bleeding sent immediately to hospital. Do not use adhesive it should be stopped as soon as possible. Bleeding dressings, apply lotions or ointments, or break blisters.

It may be possible to stop bleed- Electric shock ing from a cut artery by pressing the artery with the Switch off the current. If this is not possible, free thumb against the underlying bone; such pressure the person by using a dry insulating material such may be applied while a dressing or bandage is being as cloth, wood or rubber, taking care not to use bare prepared for application, but not for more than 15 hands otherwise the electric shock may be transmit- minutes.

If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration and send for a doctor. Treat any burns as above. Nose bleeds Sit the person down with their head forward and then Kitchen environment loosen their clothing around the neck and chest. Ask Kitchens must have a good working environment. This them to breathe through their mouth and to pinch the includes: soft part of their nose. Poor pressure. Warn the person not to blow their nose for several hours. If the bleeding has not stopped, con- ventilation results in poor quality air.

Harmful tinue for a further ten minutes. If the bleeding has not gases, fumes, vapours and dust can accumulate in stopped then, or recurs in 30 minutes, obtain medical the air if there is poor air movement. Comfortable working temperature. Good ventilation and cooling systems are used to create comfortable working temperatures. Good lighting. Too little light, either natural or artificial, can lead to eye strain, headaches, fatigue and stress.

Poor lighting can create hazards that would otherwise not occur, such as, for example, difficulty in walking down steps and corridors.

Practical Cookery Level 3

Kitchens must be kept clean and hygienic at all times. Cleanliness is important to prevent slips, trips and falls. Good changing room facilities. These and good welfare facilities must be provided for staff to enable them to change in a comfortable and hygienic environment. Supervising health and safety in the kitchen In order to be a supervisor of health and safety, a chef must have knowledge and understanding of the hazards at work in the kitchen to enable him or her Fractures to carry out and organise a risk assessment and to A person suffering from broken bones should not understand how the effective operation of controls be moved until the injured part has been secured so can reduce risks.

The supervisor must monitor work that it cannot move. Medical assistance should be activities to make sure that health and safety proce- obtained. Supervisory skills A typical role involves Accident records supervising employees work, mentoring, and so on. Health and safety training records Supervisors must be able to carry out or organise a Health surveillance records risk assessment and understand how the effective List of staff who are competent in health and operation of controls can reduce risks. Always make safety procedures sure that health and safety principles are being fol- First-aid records lowed.

If something goes wrong in the kitchen or res- List of first aiders taurant and an accident happens you will be required A fire certificate to investigate and make recommendations to manag- Fire and emergency procedures ers on how improvements can be made to prevent future accidents. Fire inspection records Examination and test certificates for work A key role is to motivate your staff to follow good health equipment and safety practices, giving them support, advice and Maintenance and repair records for equipment guidance in creating a health and safety culture.

Health and safety law poster Health and safety committee minutes Making your work more effective Details of visit by enforcement officers Make sure you understand the health and safety management system and its procedures. Documents Health and Safety at Work Act contained within a health and safety management Approval codes of practice. Risk assessments and their findings Always record key facts and all record keeping must COSHH assessments be accurate. Company rules and procedures Systems of safe working.

Health A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Carcinogen A substance that can cause cancer. Carcinogenic Something that could cause cancer. Fume Microscopic air-borne particles produced when, for example, metals are heated during welding or as a result of certain chemical processes. A fume may smell foul and may be irritating or toxic.

Vapour A gaseous form of a substance that is normally solid or liquid. Accident Any unplanned event that results or could have resulted in personal injury or ill health; damage to or loss of property, plant or materials; damage to the environment; loss of business opportunity. Incident An accident unplanned event or a near miss that does not result in personal injury, death or damage but has the potential to do so. Environmental health An officer employed by local authorities to enforce health and safety law. Health and Safety The body appointed by the government to regulate health and safety law.

Commission HSC Reasonably What is practicable in the light of whether the time, trouble and expense of the practicable precautions suggested are proportionate or not to the risks involved. Flammable substances Any natural or artificial substance in the form of a solid, liquid, gas or vapour that is liable to catch fire.

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Danger zone In relation to work equipment, an area where employees are exposed to dangerous machine parts. Inspection An assessment of the health and safety performance of the workplace against pre-set standards so that remedial measures can be taken before equipment becomes dangerous to use. First aid The immediate medical treatment given to a person to prevent medical conditions deteriorating or to minimise the consequences of injury or illness.

First aider A person who has been trained in first aid and holds a current first-aid certificate issued by an organisation approved by the Health and Safety Executive. Health and safety The integration of health and safety awareness and controls into day-to-day culture workplace practices. Risk assessment A system of identifying workplace hazards and assessing the risks posed by these hazards. Health surveillance The systematic monitoring of the health of any worker who may be exposed to harmful substances or harmful work activities. Reportable accident An accident that must, by law, be reported to the enforcing authorities.

Such accidents are those resulting in death, major injury, injuries as a consequence of which an employee has to take more than three days off work, a dangerous occurrence or certain diseases that occur as a result of work activities specified in RIDDOR. Safety committee A committee to deal with health and safety matters in the workplace. Training and instruction in health and A reduction in accidents and ill health in the safety workplace Training is an important and essential part of health A reduction in sickness time, cost of accidents and safety management and control.

It prepares indi- and insurance viduals with information, instruction and practice in An increase in work productivity order to develop a skill, knowledge, capability and An increase in hazards being identified by competence. It is important to always provide training and the likelihood of injury. The advantages of good training are: when new equipment is purchased and installed. Methods of training include: Group training sessions Individual training Formal training Case studies Role play: acting out health and safety practice Discussion groups Interactive computer-based courses.

Health and safety induction course The following topics could be included on a health and safety induction course: Fire safety: emergency evacuation procedures Leaflets on health and safety and where to find further information Accident and hazard reporting procedures The organisation of health and safety policy First-aid facilities Communication systems of health and safety Who the enforcing authority is. Planning a health and safety induction programme Plan a one-day health and safety At least some staff need to be trained to use the fire extinguishers induction programme for a new commis chef who will be starting work in your kitchen.

Kitchen supervision and management of the supervisor is to ensure that a group of people Organisation of staff and job roles within different work together to achieve the goals set by the busi- industries varies according to their specific require- ness. Managing physical and human resources to ments and the names given to people doing similar achieve customer service goals requires planning, jobs may also vary. Some companies or organisations organising, staffing, directing and controlling.

This can The hospitality and catering industry is made up of be done in a positive way by offering rewards, or in a people with craft skills. The crafts person is involved negative way with catering staff who do not comply with food production; the chef de partie may be the with requirements. Both methods can be effective and supervisor, supervising a section or sections of the may be used by supervisors to achieve their goals.

The head chef will have both One of the most effective ways for a supervisor to managerial and supervisory skills and will determine motivate staff is to build a team and offer incentives kitchen policies. Supervisors are involved with the successful deploy- However, staff may become indifferent to repeated ment of money, material and people. The primary role schemes such as employee of the month. In hospital catering the name would be sous-chef, chef de partie or kitchen The supervisory function and tasks supervisor.

The kitchen supervisor will be responsible to Certain leadership qualities are needed to enable the catering manager, while in hotels and restaurants a the supervisor to carry out his or her role effectively. The These qualities include the ability to: exact details of the job will vary according to the dif- Communicate ferent areas of the industry and the size of the various units, but generally the supervisory role involves three Initiate functions: technical, administrative and social. Make decisions Coordinate Technical function Mediate Culinary skills and the ability to use kitchen equipment Motivate are essential for the kitchen supervisor.

Most kitchen Inspire supervisors will have worked their way up through Organise. The supervisor needs to be able to do Those under supervision should expect their supervi- as well as know what to do and how to do it. It is also sor to show: necessary to be able to do it well and to be able to Consideration impart some of these skills to others.

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Understanding Loyalty Administrative function Respect The supervisor or chef de partie will, in many kitch- Cooperation ens, be involved with the menu planning, sometimes with complete responsibility for the whole menu but Consistency. This includes order- those for whom he or she has responsibility and can ing foodstuffs which is an important aspect of the also completely satisfy the management of the estab- supervisors job in a catering establishment and, lishment that a good job is being done.

The administrative function includes the alloca- The job of the supervisor is essentially to be an over- tion of duties and, in all instances, basic work-study seer. For example, if the chef de partie knows that operate effectively. When the catering it is necessary to make comparisons and when new supervisor in the hospital knows that there is a flu developments are being tried.

If there is a spell of Social function fine, hot weather and the cook in charge of the larder The role of the supervisor is perhaps most clearly foresees a continued demand for cold foods or when seen in staff relationships because the supervisor has an end to the hot spell is anticipated, then the plans to motivate the staff under his or her responsibility. To motivate could be described as the initiation of For the supervisor, forecasting is the good use of movement and action and having got the staff moving, judgement acquired from previous knowledge and the supervisor needs to exert control.

Then, in order experience. For example, because many people are to achieve the required result, the staff need to be on holiday in August fewer meals will be needed in organised. Thus, the supervisor has a threefold func- the office restaurant: no students are in residence at tion regarding the handling of staff; namely to organ- the college hostel, but a conference is being held and ise, to motivate and to control.

This is the essence of 60 meals are required. A motor show, bank holidays, staff supervision. Elements of supervision Planning The accepted areas of supervision include: forecast- From the forecasting comes the planning: how many ing and planning, organising, commanding, coordinat- meals to prepare; how much to have in stock should ing and controlling. Each of these will be considered the forecast not have been completely accurate ; how within the sphere of catering.

Are the staff capable of what is required of them? If not, Forecasting the supervisor needs to plan some training. This, of Before making plans it is necessary to look ahead, to course, is particularly important if new equipment is foresee possible and probable outcomes and to allow installed. As can be seen from these examples, it is necessary for forecasting to precede planning and from planning we now move to organising. Organising In the catering industry organisational skills are applied to food, to equipment and to staff.

Organis- ing in this context consists of ensuring that what is wanted is where it is wanted, when it is wanted, in the right amount and at the right time. Such organisation involves the supervisor in the pro- duction of duty rotas, maybe training programmes and also cleaning schedules. Consider the supervisors part in organising an outdoor function where a wed- ding reception is to be held in a church hall: a total of guests require a hot meal to be served at 2 p.

The supervisor would need to organise staff to be available when required, to have their own meals and maybe to see that they have got their transport home. Calor gas stoves may be needed and the supervisor would have to arrange for these to be serviced and for the equipment used to be cleaned after the function. The food would need to be ordered so that it arrived in time to be prepared. If decorated hams were to be used on the buffet then they would need to be ordered in time so that they could be prepared, cooked and decorated over the required period of time. If the staff have never carved hams before, instruction would Coordinating need to be given; this entails organising training.

Coordinating is a skill required to get staff to cooper- ate and work together. To achieve this, the supervi- Needless to say, the correct quantities of food, equip- sor has to be interested in the staff, to deal with their ment and cleaning materials would also have to be at queries, to listen to their problems and to be helpful. The other area of Commanding coordination for which the supervisor has particular responsibility is in maintaining good relations with The supervisor has to give instructions to staff on how, other departments.

The successful supervisor is able to do be the customers such as, for example, the patients this effectively having made certain decisions and, or school children who will receive the service. Good usually, having established the basic priorities. The super- sor should have received training that enables them visor has a crucial role to play here. This includes controlling people and products, pre- venting pilfering as well as improving performance, Motivation Think about yourself and what motivates checking that staff arrive on time, do not leave before you at work.

Controlling also involves checking that the product, in this case Symptoms of poor motivation the food, is of the right standard, that is, of the correct There are many symptoms of poor motivation; in gen- quantity and quality; checking to prevent waste, and eral terms they reveal themselves as lack of inter- also to ensure that staff operate the portion control est in getting the job done correctly and within the system correctly. Although they may be indicators of This aspect of the supervisors function involves poor motivation, the lack of efficiency and effective- inspecting and requires tact; controlling may include ness could also be a result of the staff overworking, inspecting the waste bin to observe the amount of personal problems, poor work design, repetitive work, waste, checking the disappearance of a quantity of lack of discipline, interpersonal conflict, lack of train- food, supervising the cooking of the meat so that ing or failure of the organisation to value its staff.

An shrinkage is minimised and reprimanding an unpunc- employee may be highly motivated but may find the tual member of the team. The standards of any catering establishment are Money as a motivating factor How much does dependent on the supervisor doing his or her job effi- money feature in your motivation?

Employee welfare People always work best in good working condi- Delegating tions and these include freedom from fear: fear of It is recognised that delegation is the root of suc- becoming unemployed, fear of failure at work, fear cessful supervision; in other words, by giving a certain of discrimination. Job security and incentives such amount of responsibility to others, the supervisor can as opportunities for promotion, bonuses, profit shar- be more effective. But as well as these tangible factors, capable of responsibility before any delegation can people need to feel wanted and that what they do is take place.

But then, having recognised the abilities of important. The supervisor is in an excellent position an employee, the supervisor who wants to develop the to ensure that this happens. Personal worries affect potential of those under his or her control must allow individuals performance and can have a very strong the person entrusted with the job to get on with it. The physical environment will naturally cause problems if, Delegating duties List the duties a sous chef or for example, the atmosphere is humid, the working kitchen supervisor could or should delegate to a chef situation ill lit, too hot or too noisy, and there is con- de partie.

In these circumstances, staff are more Motivating liable to be quick-tempered, angry and aggressive and Since not everyone is capable of, or wants, responsi- the supervisor needs to consider how these factors bility, the supervisor still needs to motivate those who might be dealt with. Most people are prepared to work Understanding in order to improve their standard of living but there is also another very important motivating factor: most The supervisor needs to try to understand both men people wish to get satisfaction from the work they do.

This entails always then be able to act upon this knowledge. It also means that work needs to be planning.

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Head chefs and hospitality managers require allocated according to each individuals ability; every- conceptual skills for long-term strategic planning. Interpersonal: people skills Finally, and most important of all, the supervisor must 2. Informational: people and technical skills be able to communicate effectively. To convey orders, 3. Decision making: conceptual skills.

The abil- A supervisor must be consistent when handling staff, ity to convey orders in a manner that is acceptable to avoiding favouritism and perceived inequity. Such the one receiving them is dependent not only on the inequity can arise from the amount of training or per- words but on the emphasis given to the words, the formance counselling given, from the promotion of tone of voice, the time selected to give them and on certain employees and from the way in which shifts who is present when they are given.

This is a skill that are allocated. Supervisors should engage in conver- supervisors need to develop. Instructions and orders sation with all staff, not just a selected few, and should can be given with authority without being authoritative. Thus the supervisor needs technical knowledge and Ethical treatment of staff is fair treatment of staff. A the ability to direct staff and to carry responsibility good supervisor will gain respect if they are ethical. Confidentiality is an important issue for the supervisor. Supervisory skills Employees or customers may wish to take the super- visor into their confidence and the supervisor must Supervisors need a wide range of technical, people not betray this.

The supervisor must be as a pejorative term. In contrast to giving general instruc- skilled in the area they are supervising because they tions on smaller tasks while supervising larger concerns, will be required in most cases to train other staff under the micromanager monitors and assesses every step. Supervisors who do not have the required skills Micromanagement may arise from internal sources, will find it hard to gain credibility with the staff.

It can also be seen as a tactic People skills used by managers to eliminate unwanted employees, Supervisors are team leaders; therefore they must be either by creating standards they cannot meet, leading sensitive to the needs of others. They must be able to to termination of employment, or by creating a stress- communicate effectively and be able to build a team ful workplace and thus causing the employee to leave.

Conceptual skills Micromanagement can also be distinguished from A supervisor must be able to think things through, espe- management by worker-to-boss ratio. At any time when cially when planning or analysing why things are not there is one worker being given orders by one boss, going as expected. A supervisor must be able to solve both people are rendered useless. When a boss can problems and make decisions. For supervisors, con- do a workers job with more efficiency than giving the ceptual skills are necessary for reasonably short-term orders to do the same job, this is micromanagement.

Micromanagement is a counterproductive approach Supervisory styles to dealing with the workforce and can be costly in A supervisory style may be described as: many areas of the business. Dictatorial A supervisor who is dictatorial is A supervisor must be able to identify what staff are autocratic and often oppressive and overbearing.

At the same time labour who follows official procedure and is very often costs must be kept to a minimum. The supervisor office-bound. Benevolent A benevolent supervisor is kind, passionate, human, kind-hearted, good, unselfish, Micromanaging a kitchen Give a practical example charitable. Charismatic A supervisor who is charismatic. An important aspect is to be able to carefully analyse has a special charm that inspires loyalty and projected business in order to adopt the best staffing enthusiasm from the team. Consultative The consultative supervisor discusses issues with the team through team Job design and the allocation of duties also have to meetings.

Unitary The unitary supervisor unites the team, Often the supervisor has to write job descriptions. These documents are used for a number of purposes, Delegative The delegative supervisor entrusts which include: others in the team to make decisions, assigning Deciding on the knowledge, experience and skills responsibility or authority to others. The supervisor Allowing new staff to develop accurate makes all the decisions and has all the authority.

The supervisor shares the decision strategies. The supervisor is very much part of the team. Leadership styles Laissez-faire Leadership style is the way in which the functions A genuine laissez-faire style is where the supervi- of leadership are carried out, the way in which the sor observes that members of the group are work- supervisor typically behaves towards members of the ing well on their own.

The supervisor passes power team. The word genuine is used because this is contrary to the type of supervisor who does not care, keeps away Leadership from trouble and does not want to get involved. Explain what kind of leadership style you would Reflect on your own practice Reflect on your adopt as a supervisory manager. Consider what training you think you 2. Name three leaders whom you are aware of need to improve your ability to supervise and lead a managers, executives, politicians, and so on and team. Continuous training shadowing a supervisor or work colleague.

Having a Supervisors and chefs should encourage continuous good mentor also helps personal development. A good training to improve knowledge and skills and change supervisor is also able to mentor and coach members attitudes. This can lead to many benefits for both the of the team to achieve their goals and objectives. Establishing and developing positive Training and personnel development can help to: working relationships Increase confidence, motivation and commitment In hospitality the supervisor is an important person of staff who is responsible for developing good teamwork and Provide recognition, enhanced responsibility and acting as a catalyst in maintaining good relationships the possibility of further career development within the team.

Give a feeling of personal satisfaction and achievement and broaden wider opportunities As individuals working within an organisation we Help to improve the availability and quality of staff. Teamwork Training is therefore a key element of improved is essential when working in a commercial kitchen. Good, effective teamwork is an important feature of Training improves knowledge, skill, confidence and human behaviour and organisational performance.

Those managing the kitchen must develop effective groups in order to achieve the high standard of work that is required to satisfy both the organisations and Main styles of training the consumers needs. The main styles of training are output training, task training, performance training and strategic training. Each member of a group must regard themselves as Examples of each style are given in Table 1.

They must interact with one another and perceive themselves as part of the group. Training should be viewed as an investment in peo- Each must share the purpose of the group; this will ple. Training requires the cooperation of the managers help build trust and support and will, in turn, result in and supervisors with a genuine commitment from all an effective performance.

Cooperation is therefore levels in the organisation. The pressures within the group may have a informal methods. People learn by doing and learn major influence on the behaviour of individual mem- from close observation of role models and from bers and their performance.

The style of leadership being in challenging situations which require initiative within the group has an influence on the behaviour of and positive leadership. A great deal can be learnt by members within the group. Task training Involves selected individuals being sent on short training or college-based courses, i. Performance training Implemented when the organisation has grown substantially and becomes well established.

Training is viewed positively, with a person responsible for overseeing training. Plans and budgets are now some of the tools used to manage the training process. Strategic training Implemented when the organisation recognises and practises training as an integral part of the management of people and the culture of the organisation. Groups help to shape the work pattern of organi- adopt a range of strategies and styles of working in sations as well as group members behaviour and order to build loyalty, drive, innovation, commitment attitudes to their jobs.

Qualities in a good team Write down what you The team needs to identify its strengths and admire in a good team. The importance of teamwork Two types of team can be identified within an Effective teams List three teams you consider to be organisation: effective. The formal team is the department or section created within a reorganised structure to pursue Successful team management specified goals Changing situations, variable resources and con- 2.

The informal team is created to deal with a stant compromise are the realities of working in particular situation; members within this team busy commercial kitchens. Systems and methods have fewer fixed organisational relationships; of managing teams and solving daily problems pro- these teams are disbanded once they have vide the chef with a framework in which to operate. The team has to produce meals with the people and Both formal and informal teams have to be developed resources at its disposal.

The chef in charge of a and led. Thought has to be given to relationships and brigade has to know how to handle the staff and the tasks and duties the team has to carry out. This is one of the most difficult aspects of the chefs job, as peo- Selecting and shaping teams to work within the ples behaviour is affected by many factors, includ- kitchen is very important. This is the job of the head ing their: chef. It requires management skills. Matching each Individual characteristics individuals talent to the task or job is an important Cultural attributes consideration. A good, well-developed team will be Social skills.

The team Get things done members must be supportive of each other. Effective Communicate with each other relationships are developed by understanding and listening to individuals. It is important that team Respond to good leadership members respect and listen to each other, cooperate Evaluate logically and value confidentiality. The chef must be able to Perform skilled operations with technical precision give honest feedback to the team. The chef must lead rather than drive, and encour- age the team to practise reasonable and supportive Maintaining the health of the team and developing behaviour so that any problems are dealt with in an it further demands constant attention.

The individual objective way and the teams personal skills are har- members of a group will never become a team unless nessed to achieve their full potential. The chef in this position is The chef is able to manage the team successfully only expected to set examples that have to be followed. The chef must examine the pressure, and sometimes dealing with conflict, per- processes that create efficient teamwork, finding out sonality clashes, change and stress.

To assist in this process, the chef must: Have a consistent approach to solving problems Take into account peoples characters as well as their technical skills Encourage supportive behaviour in the team Create an open, healthy climate Make time for the team to appraise its progress.

Good team management Name three team managers you consider to be good managers. These may be managers in sport, kitchens, or restaurants. Why are they good managers? What can we learn from these managers? People must know what is expected of them and what the standards are. Rewards are linked to effort and results. Any such factors must also work towards fulfilling the: Needs of the organisation, and Expectations of team members. Improved performance should be recognised by con- communicating.

In work, the quality of our personal sideration of pay and performance. It is when the intent is not translated into effectively, it is important to get to know them well, the effect that communication can break down. Such understand their needs and aspirations and attempt breakdowns affect staff and team relationships and to help them achieve their personal aims. Good relationships depend on good communication, If a chef is able to manage the team by coordinating and awareness of the potential gap between intent its members aims with the corporate objectives and effect can help clarify and prevent any misunder- by reconciling their personal aspirations with the standing within the group.

In the kitchen, most jobs have some communication component. Training and developing the team is about the exercise. Communication at work needs Conflict often occurs in a professional kitchen to be orientated towards action getting something when the brigade is understaffed and under done. Pressure can also come from, say, restaurant reviews and Reflect on your communication skills How well guides, when a chef is seeking a Michelin star or do you communicate? Do you need to improve your other special accolade communication skills? If so, how? Conflicts damage working relationships and upset the team and this will eventually show up in the finished product.

Diversity in the hospitality industry The hospitality industry is becoming more diverse and, The chef and manager must also be aware of any for this reason, the team must celebrate and welcome insidious conflict that may be going on around them diversity and embrace equal opportunities. Covert conflicts are those that take place in secret; they can be very harmful. Diversity in the kitchen can contribute positively to Although this type of conflict is often difficult to detect, the development of the team, bringing to it a range it will undermine the teams performance.

Many con- of skills and ideas from different cultures. The free flicts start with misunderstandings or a small upset movement of labour within the European Union has that grows and develops out of all proportion. It is important to reflect on and analyse the nature of the conflict and individual attitudes to it. Conflicts can Diversity recognises that people are different.

It be very damaging and upsetting but there can also be includes not only cultural and ethnic differences but some positive outcomes. A conflict can be a learning differences in gender, age, disability and sexual orien- curve that a chef has to enter into; it has to be han- tation, background, personality and work style. Work- ing relationships should be able to harness such dif- Prioritising the customer ferences to improve creativity and innovation and be Developing relationships within the team means that based on the belief that groups of people who bring every member understands the goals and objectives different perspectives will find better solutions to of the team.

One of the main goals is to satisfy the problems than groups of people who are the same. Good commu- nication within the organisation assists in the devel- Diversity List the advantages and benefits gained opment of customer care. The kitchen must com- from a diverse workforce. Any Minimising conflict in relationships customer complaints must be handled positively: treat A conflict with the manager or with colleagues can customers who complain well, show them empathy.

One of the problems within the team. Good customer service List the most important The following are just some of the points that should factors you consider to be high priority in providing a be borne in mind: good customer service programme. In this chapter you have learned how to: 1. Supervising food 2 safety. In this section you will learn about: 1. The importance of food safety management procedures 2. The responsibilities of employers and employees in respect of food safety legislation and procedures for compliance 3.

How the legislation is enforced. Food safety legislation Food safety legislation covers a wide range of Food safety means putting in place all of the meas- topics including: ures needed to make sure that food and drinks are Controlling and reducing outbreaks of food. Prevention of manufacture and sale of injurious food.

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It is also contamination essential to have the knowledge to apply these prin- Training of food handlers ciples effectively and to train and supervise others Provision of clean water, sanitary facilities, working in food areas to adopt the same high stand- washing facilities. New food hygiene legislation affecting all food busi- nesses came into force in the UK in January In any food business, food safety procedures must This new legislation originated in the European parlia- be planned, organised and monitored.


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  • It involves ment; it replaced the existing Act and related protecting food from the time it is delivered through regulations introduced after , though most of its storage, preparation cooking and serving to the requirements of these earlier acts and regulations avoid the risk of causing illness or harm to the remain the same.

    It is also essential for the business to comply with legal obligations, to avoid possible legal The most important and relevant regulations for food action or receiving notices served by local author- businesses are: ity enforcement officers. All records must be reviewed and staff training monitored regularly, especially if there is a change Appropriate levels of supervision are in place in procedures. They provide adequate hygiene and welfare facilities for staff There is an adequate supply of materials and You will also find useful information about equipment for staff, including PPE personal food hygiene legislation on the Food Standards protective equipment Agency website www.

    Before the introduction of the new legislation it had reporting. Now it is a legal requirement to have Not do anything or work in such a way that would a system based on the seven principles of Hazard endanger or contaminate the food they work with Analysis Critical Control Point HACCP.

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